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Samuel Cromie
Assistant Professor, Psychology

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Transferring Learning Across Safety-Critical Industries in, editor(s)Malcolm MacLachlan , Maritime Psychology Research in Organizational & Health Behavior at Sea, Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp49 - 68, [Paul M. Liston, Alison Kay, Sam Cromie, Nick McDonald, Bill Kavanagh, Roddy Cooke, Peter Walter] Book Chapter, 2017 URL DOI

P Liston, V Arrigoni, S Silvagni, M Ducci, S Cromie, Closing The Loop of Cross-Fertilisation Transferring Human Factors Training from Aviation to Maritime, SEAHORSE Conference on 'Maritime Safety and Human Factors, Glasgow, 2016 Conference Paper, 2016 URL

Broughton, H., Cromie, S., Trimble, T., Cummiskey, J., Corr, D.i, Rugby Athletes and the Prevention of Injuries: an Analysis on Judgement, Knowledge and Decision Making, European Journal of Sports Medicine, 3, (2), 2016, p1 - 10 Journal Article, 2016 TARA - Full Text URL

Sam Cromie & Franziska Bott, Just culture's ''line in the sand" is a shifting one; an empirical investigation of culpability determination, Safety Science, 86, 2016, p258-272 Journal Article, 2016 DOI

Samuel Cromie, Derek Ross, Siobhan Corrigan , Paul Liston, Darragh Lynch and Evangelos Demosthenous, Integrating human factors training into safety management and risk management: a case study from aviation maintenance, Journal of Risk and Reliability, 2015, p1 - 9 Journal Article, 2015 DOI URL

Farzad Naghdali*a, M. Chiara Leva, Nora Balfe, Samuel Cromie, Human Factors Engineering at Design Stage: Is There a Need for More Structured Guidelines and Standards?, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 36, 2014, p577 - 582 Journal Article, 2014 DOI URL

Kay, A., Liston, P. and Cromie, S.D., Measuring Crew Resource Management:, HCI International 2014, Crete, Greece, 22-27 June 2014, edited by Don Harris , 2014 Conference Paper, 2014

Ewan Douglas, Samuel Cromie, M. Chiara Leva, Nora Balfe, Modelling the Reporting Culture within a Modern Organisation, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 36, 2014, p589 - 594 Journal Article, 2014 DOI URL TARA - Full Text

Maritime Work: Psychosocial and organisational aspects of work at sea and their implications for health and performance in, editor(s)Carter. T. & Schreiner, A , Textbook of Maritime Medicine. , Bergen, Norwegian Centre for Maritime Medicine., 2013, [Malcolm MacLachlan, Sam Cromie, Paul Liston, Bill Kavanagh, and Alison Kay] Book Chapter, 2013

Samuel Cromie, Paul Liston, Derek Ross, Siobhan Corrigan, Lindita Vani, Darragh Lynch, Solonas Demosthenous, Chiara Leva, Vangelis Demosthenous, Human and Organisational Factors Training as a Risk Management Strategy in an Aviation Maintenance Company, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 33, 2013 Journal Article, 2013 TARA - Full Text

C. McCaughan, D. Coyne, S. Hughes, S. Cromie, Enhancing systems analysis in healthcare incident investigation: A work in progress, Irish Ergonomics Review, 9, 2013, p84 - 86 Journal Article, 2013 URL

Deirdre McCarthy, Brian Edwards, Sam Cromie, Human Factors in Pharmaceutical Safety Systems - Relevance to the New EU PV Legislation, International Society of Pharmacovigilance Annual Meeting, Pisa, 1-4 October 2013, 2013 Poster, 2013

C. McCaughan, S. Cromie, N. McDonald, Factors in determining the level of causal analysis in healthcare incident investigations, Irish Ergonomics Review, 9, 2013, p87 - 96 Journal Article, 2013 URL

Liston, P., Kay, A., Cromie, S., Leva, C., D'Cruz, M., Patel, H., Langley, A., Sharples, S. and Aromaa, S. , Evaluating the Iterative Development of VR/AR Human Factors Tools for Manual Work. , 18th World Congress of Ergonomics, Recife, Brazil, February 12-16, 2012 Conference Paper, 2012

Liston, P., Kay, A., Cromie, S., Leva, M.C., D'Cruz, M., Patel, H., Langley, A., Sharples, S., and Aroma, S., Evaluating the iterative development of VR/AR human factors tools for manual work., Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, 2012, p2208 - 2215 Journal Article, 2012

Liston, P., Cromie, S., 'The Development of an Integrated Learning Environment for the Training and Certification of Aircraft Maintenance Engineers: Moving Beyond the Classroom', International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN), 2012, pp3247 - 3254 Conference Paper, 2012

Liston, P., Cromie, S., Kay, A., Leva, C., D'Cruz, M., Patel, H., Langley, A., Sharples, S., Aromaa, S.,Vizzo, C. , Evaluating a Modular Virtual Reality Platform for High-Skilled, High-Value Manual Tasks in Real Industrial Cases, Joint VR Conference of euroVR and EGVE, Nottingham, UK, September 20-21, 2011 Conference Paper, 2011

Koumaditis Konstantinos, Themistocleous Marinos, Philip Byrne, Derek Ross, Samuel Cromie, Siobhan Corrigan, , Investigating Human Factors in Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries, European, Mediterranean & Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems 2011, Athens, Greece, May 30-31 2011, 2011, pp294 - 305 Conference Paper, 2011 TARA - Full Text

Leva, C., Kay, A., Smith T., Diez A., Azpiazu J., Liston, P. and Cromie S., The Use of Augmented Reality to Support Maintenance: Human Factors Issues and Advantages. , Irish Ergonomics Society Annual Conference , June 2011, 2011 Conference Paper, 2011

H. Broughton S. Cromie, T. Trimble, AN INFORMATION RESOURCE LINKING PERFORMANCE TO PREVENTION OF SPORTS INJURIES - A PRELIMINARY INQUIRY, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 2011, p337 - 337 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Liston, P., Cromie, S., 'Using Research-based Teaching to Help the Unemployed in Ireland Upskill and Reskill for Sustainable Work', International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN), 2011, pp1127 - 2234 Conference Paper, 2011

Leva, C.; Liston, P.; Kay, A.; Cromie, S.; Krassi, B; Aromaa, S, Human Factors Methods in ManuVAR: A Contribution to Go beyond Leand and Agile Approaches , Proceedings Irish Ergonomics Society Annual Conference 2010, Irish Ergonomics Society Annual Conference 2010, Limerick, Oct. 2010, ISSN 1649-2102, 2010, pp17 - 26 Conference Paper, 2010 URL

Corrigan, S.., Cooke, M., Garavan, T.N., Gubbins, C., Cromie, S., , An Understanding of Manufacturing Operational Contexts in Enhancing Successful Implementation & Sustainability of Re-Skilling/Multi-Skilling Interventions, 11TH International Conference on Human Resource Development. , Pecs, Hungary, 2nd - 4th June, 2010, 2010 Conference Paper, 2010

Liston, P., Cromie, S., Leva, C., Helin, K., D'Cruz, M., ManuVAR Training: Supporting the Implementation and Design of VR/AR Quality-improvement Tools for Manual Handling, Proc. of the 3rd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics AHFE2010, Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics - AHFE , Florida, USA, 2010, AHFE, 2010 Conference Paper, 2010

Gubbins, C., Cromie, S., Cooke, M., Garavan, T.N., Murphy, E. , The Nature of Manufacturing Task Characteristics and Their Impact on Learning Effectiveness and Workplace Performance, 11th International Conference on Human Resource Development, Pecs, Hungary, June 2-4, 2010, Routledge, 2010 Conference Paper, 2010

M.C. Leva, A.M. Kay, F.Mattei, T. Kontogiannis,M. De Ambroggi, S.Cromie, Dynamic Task Representation Method for a Virtual Reality Application , HCI International , San Diego, U.S.A, July 19-24, 2009 Conference Paper, 2009

Leva M. C Kay A., Mattei F. Kontoggiannis, T., Deambroggi M., Cromie S., A Dynamic Task Representation Method for a Virtual Reality Application, Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics , 5639, 2009, p32 - 42 Journal Article, 2009 URL

Leva M. C., Mattei F., Kay A, Kontoggiannis T., Cromie S., The Development Of A Tool For Modelling Tasks In Safety Critical Environments And Its Implications In The Development Of User Centred Virtual Reality Simulations, Irish Ergonomics Review , 5, 2009, p34 - 41 Journal Article, 2009 URL

Gubbins, C., Cromie, S., Fitzpatrick, M., Corrigan, S., Murphy, E., Cooke, M., Garavan, T.N., A 'State of the Art' Review of the Characteristics and Effectiveness of Training Technology Methodologies for Training Time, Skill Retention & Learning Transfer, EDULEARN International Conference on Education & New Learning Technologies, Barcelona, Spain, Barcelona, Spain, 6-8 July, 2009, 2009 Conference Paper, 2009

Leva M. C., Mattei F., Kay A, Kontoggiannis T., Cromie S, The Development of a method and a tool for dynamic task representation as part of a Virtual Reality Application, Reliability, Risk, and Safety: Theory and Applications , ESREL , Prague, 2009, edited by Radim Bris, Carlos Guedes Soares, Sebastián Martorell , 1, ESREL, 2009, pp104 - 126 Conference Paper, 2009

M.C. Leva, F. Mattei, A. Kay, S. Cromie, The Development of a Tool for Modeling Tasks in Safety Critical, Irish Ergonomic Society Annual Review, Dublin, June, 2009 Conference Paper, 2009

Liston, P., Cromie, S., Leva, M.C. , Training Best Practice: How to Support the Implementation of Virtual Reality & Augmented Reality Quality-Improvement Tools in High-Value, High-Knowledge Manual Work, ICERI2009 Proceedings CD, International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation - ICERI , Madrid, 2009, 1, IATED, 2009 Conference Paper, 2009 DOI

A. M. Kay, M.C. Leva, S.D. Cromie, N. Solazzi, Competency Framework - A particular use in the technical domain, Psychological Society of Ireland/British Psychological Society joint annual conference, Dublin, April 4-8, 2008 Conference Paper, 2008

Leva M.C.Kay A., Solazzi N. Cromie S., Dynamic Task Representation Method (DyTRaM): A use of Task Analysis aimed at identifying safety critical deviations, Irish Ergonomics Review, 4, 2008, p24 - 40 Journal Article, 2008 URL

Liston, P., Cromie, S., 'An Analysis of Normal Operations in Aviation Maintenance', European Association of Aviation Psychology Conference, 2002 Conference Paper, 2002

An organizational approach to human factors in, editor(s)Hayward, B.J. and Lowe A.R. , Aviation Resource Management, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2002, pp51 - 61, [N. McDonald, S. Corrigan, S. Cromie & C. Daly] Book Chapter, 2002

McDonald, N, Corrigan, S, Daly, C, Cromie, S, Safety management systems and safety culture in aircraft maintenance organisations, SAFETY SCIENCE, 34, 2000 Journal Article, 2000

The impact of safety training on safety climate and attitudes in, editor(s)Soekkha, Hans , Aviation Safety , Utrecht, VSP, 1997, pp649 - 660, [N. McDonald, S. Cromie and M. Ward] Book Chapter, 1997


Non-Peer-Reviewed Publications

Sam Cromie, Evangelos Demosthenous, Derval Cromie, 'Supersonic Aviation Videos', Dublin, Trinity Stamina Ltd, 2013, - Film production, 2013

Derek Ross, Loukia Loukopopolous, Evangelos Demosthenous, Andreas, Hadjinicolaou, Siobhan Corrigan, Sam Cromie, STAMINA BPM Training Course, 2011, - Miscellaneous, 2011

Sam Cromie, Derek Ross, Evangelos Demosthenous, Loukia Loukopoulos , 'A Whole Batch of Problems', STAMINA BPM Training Course, Dublin, 2011, - Film production, 2011

Sam Cromie, Trinity Stamina Ltd, 2011 Campus Company, 2011

Research Expertise


Foreign object retention in healthcare, aviation and other industries Psycho-social outcomes and mechanisms of self-help groups Just culture and culpability decision making Organisational, professional and national cultures and their relations to human factors The meaning and use of incident information Efficiency and effectiveness of training methodologies and processes Assessment methodologies for non-technical skills Models of human competence Integrated risk management The use of virtual and augmented reality for training, operations management, risk assessment and safety management


  • Title
    • Developing a multi-faceted approach to reducing and mitigating the risk of foreign object retention
  • Summary
    • Over 1,000 Irish FOR incidents between 2011 and 2015 represent unnecessary suffering patients, reputational cost/damage to the healthcare service, institution and clinician and financial cost in claims and rework. FOR is an intractable human factors problem because removing materials after a task is not integrated into the natural task sequence, thus more susceptible to a "lapse" error. While the problem traverses tasks and industries the challenges can be specific to the sector, organisation, team, task and object. Generic risk controls need to be tailored to the specific context. Healthcare-specific human factors may be the hierarchical structure of medical/surgical teams, interdisciplinary communication, the culture around "speaking up" and the training history in a "conservative profession". The objective of this research project will be to integrate the best of existing methods into a foreign object management process and an implementation roadmap. The foreign object management process is a generic process which can be customised for application to diverse contexts. The implementation roadmap is a framework for introducing, customising and embedding the process in a hospital, including stakeholder identification and engagement, training, resourcing and continuous improvement. Two pilot hospitals have been chosen to analyse surgical and obstetric services. Two groups of stakeholders from the pilot hospitals will be identified and engaged with throughout the project - process stakeholders (surgeons, obstetricians, theatre nurses, midwives) and system stakeholders (hospital administrators, educators, device manufacturers, risk managers, patient representatives, indemnifiers, regulators). The project brings together an experienced multi-disciplinary team from human factors, psychology, risk & change management, surgery, obstetrics /gynaecology, nursing/midwifery. Human factors and risk management tools - process modelling, bowtie, stakeholder analysis - will be applied to analyse the challenges and develop the most effective solutions. The project team includes stakeholders in key positions in the health services to enable effective execution, dissemination and uptake of the projects results.
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board
  • Date From
    • December 2016
  • Date To
    • December 2018
  • Title
    • The social and psychological mechanisms and outcomes of self-help groups in Ethiopia
  • Summary
    • A number of studies have confirmed that the Self Help Group (SHG) approach brings about various levels of change and empowerment while accumulating financial capital, as well as being cost-effective. Tearfund's underlying theory of change asserts that relationships and social capital are key towards achieving this. However studies conducted so far have touched on this, yet not researched this mechanism in depths from a psychological perspective. Emphasis has been largely on tangible benefits, though a psychological lens is believed to reveal intangible mechanisms and benefits. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the role of relationships and social capital in the SHGs will further improve the quality of the implementation if the Self Help Group approach. This research aims to: . Evaluate the impact of SHGs on the social, psychological and spiritual wellbeing of their members . Elucidate the features SHGs which promote, and those that may hamper, achieving this impact . Elaborate and adjust the Tearfund theory of change for SHG The study comprises mixed methods study of ten SHGs. The SHGs were chosen deliberately to include: . Five young ( less than 2 years) and five older ( more than 5 years) SHGs . High (5), Medium (4) and Low (1) functioning SHGs . SHGs from two regions - Oromiya and Wolaita Four data collection methods are being used in the study Surveys of the SHG members, including: o Demographic data o Self-evaluations of current status and changes since joining the SHG in finances, health, education, and wellbeing o Standardised scales of key psycho-social and spiritual dimensions o Team evaluation items In-depth focus groups with the SHGs focussed on elaborating their understanding of how the SHGs work, how they influence change in their members' lives and what the key mechanisms are Profiling of SHGs using a structured interview with key informants and reference to data gathered by Tearfund or its partners: o Date of formation, location, ethnic and religious composition, etc. o Local socio-political and economic context o Any significant events in the history of the SHG - internal conflicts, members leaving, drought challenges Semi-structured observations of the focus groups to gather data on non-verbal behaviours and team interactions
  • Funding Agency
    • BuZa/Tear, and co-funded by Tearfund and Tearfund Ireland
  • Date From
    • November 2016
  • Date To
    • March 2017
  • Title
    • Innovation through Human Factors in risk analysis and management (InnHF)
  • Summary
    • The INNHF main objective is to formalize an approach and make it possible to integrate the current and developing assessment methods recommended or required by recognized industrial standards and methodologies, with an easy to use but complete human factors and system health management approach, the following goals will be achieved: 1) Review of the applicability of most the recent generation of standards that are not yet fully acquired by different industries and verification of their effectiveness in safety assessment. 2) Devising a method to account qualitatively and quantitatively for the human factor in the wider applied risk assessment methodologies. Verifying how a proper account of the impact of human and organizational factors (H&OF) in the operational phase may provide a sensitive change in the results of the assessments. 3) Reviewing the methods to account qualitatively and quantitatively for maintenance effectiveness, also taking into account HOFs, verifying how a proper account of the maintenance strategy may provide a sensitive change in the results of the assessments. 4) To translate the results of the analysis performed through the novel approach in a factual design improvement initiative for new or existing plant or machinery able to provide leverage for competitive advantage (maximum availability, minimum unscheduled shutdowns of production, economic maintenance, minimum incident and accident). 5) The final objective of the project will be the development of a training program aimed at covering all the technical areas of expertise necessary to successfully carry out the case studies objectives. This training program will be initially rolled out internally to provide new researcher with a set of innovative skills to maximize the employment prospects for new researchers in large and/or SM enterprises. Further the training materials and content developed will also be offered to the wider community of the relevant industrial domains for the purpose of testing and dissemination.
  • Funding Agency
    • EU FP7
  • Date From
    • Nov 2011
  • Date To
    • Oct 2015
  • Title
    • ManuVar
  • Summary
    • Through the use of virtual and augmented reality technology (VR / AR), the ManuVAR project will demonstrate that high value, high knowledge manual work presents an opportunity to improve the competitiveness of EU industries. ManuVar ( ) is a European comprises 18 partner organisations across 8 countries.
  • Date From
    • Early 2009
  • Date To
    • 2011
  • Title
  • Summary
    • Developing Human Factors training tailored to the Bio-Pharma-Medica industry.
  • Funding Agency
    • EC
  • Date From
    • 2009
  • Date To
    • 2011
  • Title
    • Incident investigation in the health services
  • Funding Agency
    • Various
  • Date From
    • 2011


Aerospace psychology; Air Safety; Air Transportation; AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ORGANISATIONS; Applied Psychology; Behavioral Science Education; Behavioral/Experimental Psychology; CLIMATE; Computer-Aided Instruction; Control theory of human accident causation; Cultural/Social Anthropology; Culture and health; Culture, systems and development; E-Learning; Education and Work; Education, Organizational Theory & Behavior; Educational Evaluation/Assessment; Educational Psychology; Educational Testing/Measurement; Educational/Instructional Technology; Engineering Psychology; Human Learning and Memory; Industrial Psychology; Information technology in education; Innovation in learning; Learning Motivation; Operations management; Organisation design, development, theory, behaviour; Organizational Theory and Behavior; Psychology; Road/Highway Safety; SAFETY CULTURE; SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS; Safety, reliabaility and innovation, organisational cultures; Transportation; Virtual learning environments; Work Motivation



JAA HF in maintenance subcommittee, EAMTC co-opted member, Advisor to HSE NIMT,


Associate Member of the Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors 2016 – Date

Psychological Society of Ireland 1987 – 1998

Joint Aviation Authority Maintenance Human Factors Subcommittee

European Aviation Maintenance Training Committee

Last updated 4 June 2015 School of Psychology (Email).